Rouen’s most prestigious monument, the lofty and imposing cathedral, is one of the most exquisite pieces of pure Flamboyant work existing. It is also the tallest cathedral in France with its spire reaching 151 metres high. From the Place de la Cathédrale, the church appears in all its glory, with a stunning west front comprising of two mighty towers: Tour de Beurre and Tour Saint Romain.
Description and Facts about Rouen Cathedral
Of the cathedral, author Ruskin wrote: “It is the most exquisite piece of pure Flamboyant work existing. There is not one cusp, one finial, that is useless, not a stroke of the chisel is in vain; the grace and luxuriance of it all are visible— sensible, rather, even to the uninquiring eye; and all its minuteness does not diminish the majesty, while it increases the mystery of the noble and unbroken vault.”
Seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rouen
The Archbishop of Rouen has its seat in the Rouen Cathedral and is one of the 15 archbishops in France. Legend has it that the district under the supervision of an archbishop was founded by Nicasius (c. 250), a disciple of St. Denis who was martyred in Normandy.
As the archbishop also bears the title of Primate, the cathedral is also a primatial church.
Rouen is also the only city in France to have an adjoining archiepiscopal palace still occupied by an archbishop today.
Until 1876 the world’s tallest building was the cathedral of Strasbourg with its bell tower reaching 142 m. With the addition of the new cast iron spire on the lantern tower, Rouen became the tallest building in the world (151 m), a record yielded to Cologne Cathedral just four years later in 1880 (157 m). Rouen keeps the record of being the tallest cathedral of France.
Our pages about Rouen Cathedral
Rouen Cathedral: A bit of History
The existing cathedral was not the first to be constructed on the site. In the 11th century, a Romanesque building was built and dedicated in 1063 by archbishop Maurille. Excavations ran from the end of the 19th century and led to the discovery of the Romanesque crypt, the only archaeological remains of the former cathedral. According to scholars, it would have been of similar size as the famous abbatial church of Jumièges, whose most celebrated ruins lie some miles away from the city of Rouen.
When Gothic architecture started to be fashionable in Western Europe, the religious authorities decided to replace the Romanesque building with a more prestigious one which would show the world the greatness and prestige of Rouen, one of the largest cities of Western Europe. Less than a century after the dedication of the Romanesque cathedral, archbishop Hughes of Amiens planned the construction of the new building, starting from the facade, and then gradually covering the Romanesque nave with a Gothic one… until a fire devastated the whole district during Easter 1200, destroying everything that remained of the Romanesque cathedral.
The Gothic nave was completed between 1234 and 1237 and side chapels added around 1265-1275. The monumental western façade was built between 1370 and 1450. In 1478 the Saint-Romain tower was completed and its counterpart the Tour de Beurre in 1506. The Lantern Tower at the crossing of the transept was topped in 1557 by a gilded lead spire reaching 128 m.
During the Wars of Religion, the cathedral was sacked by the Huguenots in 1562 hence the absence or deterioration of statues.
During the French Revolution, the cathedral was transformed into a Temple of Reason.
In 1822 thunder hit the lantern tower of the cathedral, destroying the Renaissance spire. It was replaced by the present-day spire in 1876.
In 1944 Allied bombing during the week before D-Day did a lot of damage to the cathedral, which was hit by seven bombs. Fortunately, one of them, which landed in the choir, never exploded. The other six bombs destroyed the South aisle of the nave and the chapels. One of the four pillars supporting the lantern tower and its spire was seriously damaged. Urgent repairs were made to prevent the spire form crashing down onto the building. As for the nave, it remained firmly in place, thanks to the counterweight of the flying buttresses of the Sainte-Catherine Chapel. On the 1st June 1944, the Saint-Romain tower caught fire and its bells fell. It took several years to repair the cathedral and reopened in 1956.
The violent storm of December 1999 damaged the lantern tower and the choir when the North-east turret weighing 26 tons fell in the cathedral.
On the 30th May 2015 the restoration work on the West front ended with the removal of scaffolding. For the first time, the people of Rouen and visitors alike were able to admire the cathedral in all its glory.
The beauty of Rouen Cathedral is best appreciated from the Place de la Cathédrale without forgetting the portals of the transepts (Calende and Librarians), as well as the soaring Lantern Tower.
The Façade of Rouen Cathedral
With the Tour Saint Romain to the left and the Tour de Beurre to the right, the facade is an amazing set of towers, pinnacles, statues and porches. It is therefore no surprise that it was often painted by the impressionist Claude Monet. The painter composed a series of 28 paintings of the Western facade at different times of the day. His work is exhibited in various museums spread between America (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Getty Center, Los Angeles) and Europe (National Museum of Serbia, Belgrade, museum of Cologne, Germany, Fine Art museum, Rouen and musée d’Orsay, Paris).
The two tall towers contrast with other renowned cathedrals in France as they do not rise above the aisles, but at the sides.
The two porches of the aisles follow the early Gothic style but their tympana were only added in the 13th century. The main porch was the last Gothic element to be added to the cathedral, built to reinforce the facade which had been subsiding after the erection of the Tour du Beurre.
The rose window above is the fourth replacement and dates back to just after the Second World War.
Niches house rows of statues on both sides. There are two galleries of statues in the South and three in the North, a unique feature in France, although common in England. This is evidence of British influence in the Gothic style of the cathedral.
The higher part of the facade is decorated with fine Rayonnant and Flamboyant style gables and at the top of the facade, pyramid-shaped pinnacles crown the whole ensemble.
Find out more about the West Façade of Rouen Cathedral.
La Tour de Beurre
The Tour de Beurre was built towards the end of the 15th century. Its name derives from the word for butter which was banned during Lent.
The last storey is a Gothic marvel as it transforms the squared plan to an octagonal one. Scholars believe that the architect of the time wished to complete the tower with a stone spire. However the canon priests were too scared of the cost of such a work and demanded that a refined balustrade be built instead.
Find out more about the Tour de Beurre.
La Tour Saint Romain
On the northern side of the facade lies the mighty Tour Saint Romain, four centuries older than its counterpart. Work on the tower started in 1145, so it is the oldest part of the Gothic construction. Its last storey, in Flamboyant style, clashes with the rest of the more sober building. The Saint Romain tower burnt down on the 1st June 1944, after Allied bombing the day before. Its unusual axe-like roof, covered with slates and decorated with a gilded image of a sun, has been reconstructed only recently.
Find out more about the Tour Saint-Romain.
The Lantern Tower
The last addition of major importance to the structure of the cathedral was the 19th century cast iron spire on the lantern tower. Reaching a height of 151 metres, it replaces a former lead-covered timber Renaissance spire from the 16th century, which burnt down in 1822.
The huge tower follows the traditional characteristic of Gothic style in Normandy, having a lantern tower at the crossing of the transept.
It took some 50 years to construct the existing cast iron spire. Four beautiful copper-clad wooden turrets were added by architect F. Marrou between 1880 and 1884 around the spire at the base of the lantern tower. The North-east turret weighing 26 tons was missing following the violent storm of December 1999 which also damaged the choir and the stalls in its fall. The three other turrets were removed for maintenance and safety purposes before being replaced in 2012.
Find out more about the Lantern Tower of Rouen Cathedral.
The Librarians Portal
The Librarians Portal (Portail des Libraires) is situated in the North end of the transept of Rouen Cathedral. Once the private access for the canon priests to the cathedral, the portal is a beautiful example of Gothic architecture in Normandy. Its name refers to the transcribers and calligraphists whose shops once occupied the courtyard.
Find out more about the Librairians Portal.
The Calende Portal
The Calende Portal (Portail de la Calende) is situated in the South end of the transept of Rouen Cathedral. Richly decorated, the portal was built in the 15th century.
Find out more about the Calende Portal.
Elegant flying buttresses ornate with pinacles surround the nave on both sides.
The chevet of the cathedral is terminated by the Lady-Chapel built between 1430 and 1538. Between the buttresses and their pinacles are pointed windows topped with gables. On the roof of the chapel stands a statue of the Virgin from 1541.
On the northern side of the cathedral lies the garden of the cloister-court. Only a few arches of the cloister were built on the eastern side. The green space which occupies the courtyard is now known as Cour d’Albane and was recently renovated.
Inside the cathedral
On entering the cathedral, the eye ranges an uninterrupted view of the whole length of the cathedral through a vista of lofty pillars and pointed arches.
The interior of the Cathedral of Rouen is considered by scholar Bond to be curiously Romanesque in plan: “Its nave bays are four-storied, an upper and lower pier arch with small triforium and clerestory. The upper pier arch might also be regarded as a triforium, for a passage-way runs along the sill of the arch and is continued behind the main piers on an elegant group of shafted corbels. These were originally intended to support a vault of a lower aisle. The east end is more dignified and has simpler factors, clerestory, triforium and pier arch. The glass is magnificent, dating from the thirteenth century.”
The nave was built from the 12th century and the aisles and vaults from the 13th century. The nave includes 11 spans with a total length of 60 metres.
Like in Laon Cathedral, the nave was built with a four-storey elevation (a characteristic of early Gothic), in contrast to the late Gothic style which adopted three. When the early Gothic focused attention downward (like in Rouen), late Gothic altered this tradition by drawing attention upward, to the heavens.
Eleven clustered columns and ten pointed arches on each side support the walls of the nave.
The side aisles of the nave
The North side aisle is bordered by 8 chapels (St. Mellon, St. John, St. Sever, St. Julian, St. Éloi, Chapelle des Fonts, St. Nicholas, and St. Anne) and the South side aisle by 7 (St. Stephen, St. Leonard, St. Peter, St. Colombe, St. Catherine, St. Margaret, and Chapelle du petit Saint Romain).
One of them, the Saint-Sever chapel on the northern side aisle, features the oldest stained-glass windows of the church, dating back to the 13th century. Called the ‘Belles Verrières‘ as soon as the 14th century, they were completed by Guillaume Barbe circa 1465.
The Great Organ
The great organ was built by the Jacquot Lavergne factory and inaugurated in 1956. It is situated above the main entrance of the West front and under the great rose window.
The two arms of the transept meet at the crossing where France’s tallest spire rises.
The North Transept
The northern side of the transept is accessed through the “Librarian Portal” (Portail des Libraires) which was a private gate for the canon priests to return to their quarters safely. The rose window by Guillaume Nouel dates to the end of the 14th century. It is the only one, out of the three found in the cathedral, to have kept its colourful stained-glass.
The North transept features a monumental Gothic staircase known as the “Librarians’ Stairs” (Escalier des Libraires) which once led to the library and to the archives of the chapter.
The first two flights were built by Guillaume Pontifs in 1479 and the two last, also in Gothic architecture, date to 1788 to give access to the new floor of archives. The delicate and beautiful staircase has all the boldness and lightness which peculiarly characterise French-Gothic style.
The South Transept
The southern side of the transept is accessed through the “Calende Portal” (Portail de la Calende). It is decorated by two stained-glass windows from the Renaissance in the East part.
The Lantern Tower
Four clustered pillars support the lantern tower above the crossing of the transept. The presence of a lantern tower at the crossing of the transept is a frequent feature in churches in Normandy (St. Ouen in Rouen, Bayeux) and in England (Canterbury, Gloucester, Salisbury, Winchester).
Find out more about the Lantern Tower.
The choir of Rouen Cathedral is ascended from the transept by five steps. It comprises of 14 soaring pillars and extends on 5 spans. With its pointed arcades and elegance, it is the most sacred part of the cathedral.
The main altar is a table built in Aoste marble supported by the symbols of the four evangelists who wrote the four books of the Gospel: Matthew, Luke, Mark and John.
In the choir is also located the throne of the bishop – called ‘cathedra’, as the church is the See of Rouen’s archbishop.
The wooden stalls were sculpted from 1457 to 1470 by Philippot Viard and Flemish cabinet makers. Out of the 96 stalls installed in the choir, only 66 remained today.
The choir has a organ from the Renaissance and furnishing was replaced following the bombings of 1944.
The choir is inclosed all round with a screen of iron which replaced a copper gilt one destroyed in 1793.
The ambulatory surrounds the choir and is lightened by beautiful stained-glass windows from 1220-1230. The South side of the ambulatory is lined by statues that originally stood on the West front façade. They were replaced by copies as restorers considered them too fragile or two damaged to be put back there again.
The recumbent statues of the ambulatory
The ambulatory contains the tombs of a few Dukes of Normandy, many of them are recumbent statues, that is life-size statue sculptures dressed in their daily costume lying supine. Recumbent literally means “lying in repose”.
The recumbent statue of Rollo (or Robert) is a copy as the original was destroyed during the war. Rollo is Richard Lionheart’s ancestor, the founder and first ruler of the Viking principality which became known as Normandy.
Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cœur de Lion)
The recumbent statue of Richard the Lionheart only contains his heart. His bowels are buried within the church of the castle of Châlus-Chabrol in the Limousin and the corporeal remains at Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon and Saumur, in the Loire Valley. Richard is featured as a young man with his eyes opened. His feet rest on a lion which was the symbol of the Resurrection in the Middle-Ages. A Latin inscription on the tomb says: This place holds the heart of Richard, King of England who was named Lionheart and died in the year of 1199.
Henry the Young (Henri le Jeune)
The tomb of Henry the Young looks similar to that of his brother Richard. It also dates from the 13th century.
William I Longsword (Guillaume 1er / Guillaume Longue-Épée)
The recumbent statue of William Longsword, son of Rollo, dates from the 14th century.
Hugh of Amiens (Hugues of Amiens)
The tomb of Hugh of Amiens, archbishop of Rouen was built into the wall. Under an arcade bordered by angels, the recumbent statue shows the mitre, the ring and the crozier which are the symbols of the bishop’s authority. The Romanesque-style tomb is France’s oldest recumbent statue in France and dates back to the 12th century (which is older than the Gothic cathedral of Rouen).
John Lancaster (Jean de Lancastre)
The ambulatory keeps a commemorative plaque of John Plantagenet also called John Lancaster, the Duke of Bedford, who the locals regarded as Joan of Arc’s murderer. He owed his right to a tomb inside the church, to his duty as a canon priest of the cathedral after Joan’s death. The Calvinists destroyed the original tomb during the wars of religion.
On the northern side of the ambulatory, some 13th century stained-glass windows can be admired, such as those telling the legend of St. Julian the Hospitaller, which inspired French writer Flaubert in his book ‘Three Tales‘ (Trois Contes). They are famous for the peculiar cobalt blue colour, known as ‘the blue from Chartres‘. All the old stained-glass windows were taken down in 1939, at the start of the war, as a precaution to prevent them from being destroyed and were sent to the basements of the castle of Niort.
The Lady Chapel
The Lady Chapel is situated in the apse. When the original chapel became too small it was decided to rebuild it in 1302 in Rayonnant Gothic. The new sanctuary was longer, higher and brighter. It is lighted by nine windows executed in 1485 full of rich painted glass, representing mainly portraits of the archbishops of Rouen in their robes. The chapel contains the Renaissance tombs of the cardinals of Amboise, of the Prince de Croy (Archbishop of Rouen from 1824 to 1844) and of Louis de Brézé, Seneschal of Normandy who died in 1531). Behind the altar stands a large altarpiece sculpted in the 17th century and dedicated to the Virgin.
Rouen Cathedral in painting
The impressive sanctuary of Rouen Cathedral has been the subject of numerous paintings, notably by the Impressionist artist Claude Monet.
Rouen Cathedral by Claude Monet (1892-1893)
The West front with its amazing set of towers, pinnacles, gables, statues and porches was often painted by Claude Monet. The impressionist painter composed a series of 30 paintings of the Western facade at different times of the day. His work is exhibited in various museums spread between America (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Getty Center, Los Angeles) and Europe (National Museum of Serbia, Belgrade, museum of Cologne, Germany, Fine Art museum, Rouen Fine Arts Museum and Paris’ Musée d’Orsay).
Rouen by Richard Parkes Bonington (1825)
Rouen Cathedral by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1832)
Chevet of Rouen Cathedral by William Parrot (1860)
Rouen Cathedral from rue de l’épicerie by Camille Pissaro (1898)
Rouen Cathedral and Quai de Paris by Johannes Bosboom (1839)
Rouen Cathedral and Rouen from the Left Bank by Charles Fréchon (1900)
Rouen by Camille Corot (19th C)